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Sediments are loose, unconsolidated rock particles and ions (i.e., charged atoms) dissolved in aqueous solutions. Sedimentary rocks, which constitute about 75% of all rocks exposed at the surface of the Earth, form when the particles are cemented together or when crystals precipitate from the solutions.
The volcanic equivalent of diorite, andesite is fine grained or porphyritic, and primarily consists of the plagioclase feldspar minerals andesine and oligoclase, plus one or more of the dark, ferromagnesian minerals, such as pyroxene or biotite.
Colour Grey, dark grey, black; may have a bluish or greenish tone. Colour index 30 to 90; with a decrease of coloured minerals gabbro grades into anorthosite, and with an increase it grades into pyroxenite and peridotite.
Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock, typically consisting of the minerals quartz, feldspar, and biotite mica. It may be pink or grey, depending on the composition of the feldspar. Granites are chiefly used as building materials.
A very porous, froth-like volcanic glass, pumice is created when gas-saturated liquid magma erupts like a fizzy drink released from a shaken bottle, and cools so rapidly that the resulting foam solidifies into a glass full of gas bubbles.
Rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
General term for a large group of minerals, hydrous silicates of aluminum and potassium, often containing magnesium, ferrous iron, ferric iron, sodium, and lithium and more rarely containing barium, chromium, and fluorine.