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Contemporary probation practice is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized. Probation officers are typically described now as offender managers, and the creation of NOMS (National Offender Management Service) has broadened the remit of the Probation Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established probation lexicon - including institutional, legal, political and theoretical terms of its own as well as importing concepts from the disciplines of sociology, criminology and psychology.
Provides crucial and contemporary information about antagonism and reconciliation within both the public and private realms. Addresses topics in the field of violence, peace, and conflict studies, with coverage of issues as disparate as peace education, trends in warfare, mental illness, and violence towards animals. Covers topics of concern to contemporary society, such as ethnic conflict, hate crimes, drug control policies, and child abuse.
Designed as an alternative to overly comprehensive, lengthy, and expensive introductory texts, this is a concise overview of the field. Guides students through the various definitions of crime and the different ways crime is measured.
Provides ready information on all aspects of capital punishment in America. Details virtually every capital punishment decision rendered by the United States Supreme Court through 2006, including more than 40 cases decided since publication of the first edition.
The purpose of this Companion is to augment that Series, by taking stock of the current state of literature on migration law, theory and policy, and to sketch out the contours of its future long-term development, in what is now a vastly expanded research agenda.
Provides students, researchers, journalists, and policymakers with a complete survey of what seems to be an ongoing problem. Entries offer comprehensive coverage of the events, people, organizations, and places that have played a major role in international terrorism.
Thematic essays address such topics as immigration law and policy, refugees, unauthorized migrants, racial and ethnic identity, assimilation, nationalization, economy, politics, religion, education, and family relations. Comprehensive articles on immigration from the thirty most significant nations or regions of origin.
Explores the origins and impacts of what many experts now call a pandemic of opioid abuse in America. With commentary from public heath experts and the inclusion of more than 30 primary sources, this text also explores the origins, costs, and sharply polarized opinions regarding the decades old war on drugs, including discussion of opinions related to disparities in drug law convictions and punishments, and the effects of mass criminalization.
Traces the history of immigration in the United States from the eighteenth century to present day, and examines, through analysis of primary and secondary documents, how immigration policy and activism relate to public opinion. This work is about how opinions and ideas shaped and continue to shape the history of immigration and, as such, focuses on the power of ideologies, prejudices, attitudes, fears, and hopes that shape the immigrant debate.
Covers aspects of the privacy vs security debate from the nineteenth century through the twenty-first century. In 2000, all Americans were entitled to a basic right to privacy established through constitutional law, common law, and statutory law. However, due to the ongoing threat of radical militant groups, U.S. laws changed between 2001 and 2017, providing government agents with broad powers to invade the privacy of American citizens for the purposes of combating this threat.