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Chicago Manual of Style: Notes-Bibliography Style

"Find It. Write It. Cite It." The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is primarily used in the areas of history, art and government and social sciences

Basic Format

NOTES-BIBLIOGRAPHY STYLE

How to Cite Books - Examples

Author's Name - The author is the person who has written the text of the book.There can be multiple authors.

  • In notes, list authors' names in standard order (first name first)
  • In bibliography entries, put the first-listed author's name in inverted order (last name first). Names of any other authors should follow not be inverted

Title - This is the title of the work that you are referencing in your research paperList full book titles and subtitles. Italicize both and separate the title from the subtitle with a colon. 

Edition - There are different editions of books. Always cite the edition you actually consulted.

Editor - An editor is the person who prepared a book written by others for publication. One example of a book prepared by an editor would be a later edition of a classic novel in which the editor includes notes and an introduction from another well-known person. Also, many anthologies or reference works are written by many authors and compiled by an editor.

Volume - If a book is part of a multi volume work, include this in your citations.

Facts of Publication - Include three elements: The place (city) of publication, the publisher's name and the date (year) of the publication. In Notes, these elements are enclosed in parentheses. 

  • Publisher - The publisher is the company or person who published the book. You will find this information on the title page of a book. Provide the Publisher's name for each book exactly as it appears on the title page. You can omit the initial The, and use abbreviations like Co., Inc., etc.
  • Place of Publication - This is the city in which the book was published. You will find this information on the title page of a book.
  • Date of Publication - For books, you will include the year that the book is published. Do not include months and days.

Et al - Et al. is an abbreviation for a Latin term that means "and others." It can be added behind the lead author's name in place of others authors' names when there are four or more authors.

Anthology - An anthology is a collection of works, such as a book of poems or essays.

Reference Work - A reference work, or reference book, is a collection of facts and useful information that easily accessible. For example, dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, and almanacs are all reference works. This term is easily (and understandably!)confused with "references," as in the citations for information referenced in a research paper.

How to Cite Books - Examples

Book with Single Author

Notes

Leela Venkataraman, Indian Classical Dance: The Renaissance and Beyond (New Delhi: Niyogi Books, 2015), 77-80.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Venkataraman, Leela. Indian Classical Dance: The Renaissance and Beyond. New Delhi, Niyogi Books, 2015.

Books with Two or More Authors

Notes

Eric Simon, Jean Dickey, Kelly Hogan, and Jane Reece, Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology (Boston: Pearson, 2016), 20-25.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Simon, Eric, Jean Dickey, Kelly Hogan, and Jane Reece. Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology. Boston: Pearson, 2016.

Chapter or part of an Edited Book

Notes

Henry David Thoreau, “Walking”, in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

E-books from a Subscription Database

Notes

Brooke Borel, Infested: How the Bed Bug Infiltrated Our Bedrooms and Took Over the World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,  2015), EBSCOhost.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Borel, Brook. Infested: How the Bed Bug Infiltrated Our Bedrooms and Took Over the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015. EBSCOhost.

Notes

Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Notes-Bibliography Style Basics

The following examples illustrate the Note and Bibliography System used mostly in the field of humanities, literature and arts.

Bibliographic citations are provided in notes and supplemented by a separate bibliography

The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscript note reference numbers in the text

Notes are styled like running text, with authors’ names in regular order (first name first) and other information separated by commas or parenthesis

If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, then the notes need not cite the source information in detail

Examples of Notes are identified with “N” and Bibliography entries with “B

 

How to Cite Periodicals - Examples

Journal Articles for Subscription Database

Notes

Michael David Cohen, “School for Suffrage: The American Woman's Republic,” The Good Society 25, no. 2-3 (2017): 215, JSTOR.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Cohen, Michael D. “School for Suffrage: The American Woman's Republic,” The Good Society 25, no. 2-3 (2017): 209-230. JSTOR. 

Journal Articles Consulted Online

Notes

Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan,1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no.1 (Spring 2017):1–34.  https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Journal Articles with Four or More Authors

Notes

Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

Magazine Article

Notes

Jan Murphy, “Health Dept. goes to Court to Keep Medical Marijuana Panelists' Identities a Secret,” Patriot-News, September 29, 2017, Newspaper Source.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Murphy, John. “Health Dept. goes to Court to Keep Medical Marijuana Panelists' Identities a Secret.” Patriot-News, September 29, 2017. Newspaper Source.

Magazine Article Consulted Online

Notes

Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox, April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

Newspapers

Notes

Editorial, Opening Up New York’s Public Records, New York Times, December 10, 2017.

Bibliography (in alphabetical order)

Editorial Board. "Opening Up New York’s Public Records." The New York Times, December 10, 2017. 

 

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